CALCITE. A mineral form of calcium carbonate. Principle constituent of most limestones.
CALCITE STREAK. A former fracture or parting (in lime-stone) that has been recemented and annealed by the deposition of obscure white or light-colored calcite.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE. (CaCl2back to top Next Page) Mortar accelerator used as cold weather admixture.
CALCIUM SILICATE BRICK. A sand-lime brick (ASTM C73.)
CAMBER. A slight arching or upward curve of a beam or softit.
CANOPY. A shallow projecting roof, bracketed or cantilevered, ornamenting a doorway, window, niche, or throne.
CANTILEVER. A structural member, supported at only one end, that projects from a support.
CAP. Masonry units laid on top of a finished wall.
CAPACITY INSULATION. The ability of masonry to store heat as a result of its mass, density and specific heat. See also storage capacity.
CAPITAL. An intermediate member between the shaft of a column or pier and a beam, arch, or vault, usually ornamented by molding or carving or both.
CAPSTONE. Any single unit of masonry at the top of a masonry structure.
CARVED WORK. In stonework, hand cutting or ornamental features for which the lines cannot be applied from a pattern.
Carver. The artisan who does carved work.
CARYATID. A supporting member, serving the function of a pier, column, or pilaster, and carved or molded in the form of a draped human female figure.
CAST STONE. A precast building material manufactured from concrete.
CAVITY WALL. Masonry type of construction made with brick, structural clay tile or concrete masonry units or any combination of such units in which facing and backing are completely separated except for the metal ties which serve as bonding. (UBC)
C/B RATIO. The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a masonry unit during immersion in cold water to weight absorbed during immersion in boiling water. An indication of the probable resistance of brick to freezing and thawing. Also called saturation coefticient. (ASTM C67.)
CELL. See core.
CENTERING. Temporary formwork for the support of masonry arches or lintels during construction. Also called center(s).
CERAMIC COLOR GLAZE. An opaque colored glaze of satin or gloss finish obtained by spraying the clay body with a compound of metallic oxides, chemicals and clays. It is burned at high temperatures, fusing glaze to body making them inseparable. (ASTM C126.)
CHAMFER. Bevel on corner or edge. A groove or channel.
Chamfered Rustication. Rustication in which stones are deeply beveled where they join to an internal angle, so that where the two stones meet the chamfering forms an internal right angle.
CHASE. A continuous recess built into a wall to receive pipes, ducts, etc.
CHASE BONDING. Joining old masonry work to new by means of a bond having a continous vertical recess the full height of the wall.
CHIMNEY. A hollow shaft containing one or more passageways. vertical or nearly so, for conveying products of combustion to the outside atmosphere. (UBC)
Chimney Breast. The projection of the interior or exterior face of a wall caused by fireplaces or flues.
Chimney Connector. The pipe or breeching which connects a fuel burning appliance to a chimney. (Uniform Mechanical Code.)
Chimney Liner. A lining material of fireclay or other approved material that meets the requirements of Standard No. 37-1. UBC.
Chimney Throat. That part of a chimney directly above the fireplace where the walls are brought close together.
CLEANOUT HOLES. Openings in the first course of masonry for cleaning mortar droppings prior to grout placement in grouted masonry. High lift grouting may be required.
CLEAR CERAMIC GLAZE. Same as Ceramic Color Glaze except that it is translucent or slightly tinted, with a gloss finish.
CLEAVAGE. In rocks, a tendency to split (cleave) along parallel and generally closely spaced surfaces caused by planar orientation of mineral constituents. True cleavage surfaces are unrelated to original stratification, but the term is also loosely used in some stone industries for splitting along the depositional layering.
CLINKER. A very hard burned brick whose shape is distorted or bloated due to nearly complete vitrification
CLIP. A portion of a brick cut to length.
CLOSER. The last masonry unit laid in a course. It may be whole or a portion of the whole.
CLOSURE. Supplementary or short length units used at corners or jambs to maintain bond patterns.
CMU. See Concrete Masonry Unit.
COBBLE. Naturally rounded rock fragment between (2-1/2 inches) and (10 inches) diameter. Used for rough paving, walls, and foundation.
COLLAR JOINT. The vertical, longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry.
COLUMN. A member with a ration of height-to-least-lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support axial compressive load. (UBC)
COMPOSITE MASONRY. Multiple wythe construction in which at least one of the wythes is dissimilar to the other wythe or wythes with respect to type or grade of units or mortar.
CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT. Precast, hollow block or solid brick of concrete conforming to ASTM C-90. See also concrete block.
Concrete Block. A hollow concrete masonry unit made from portland cement and suitable aggregates such as sand, gravely crushed stone, bituminous or anthracite cinders, burned clay or shale, pumic, volcanic scoria, air-cooled or expanded blast furnace slags, with or without the inclusion of other materials, conforming to Standard No. 24-3. UBC.
Return (or L) Corner Block. Concrete masonry unit designed for corner construction for walls of various thicknesses.
Sash Block. Concrete masonry unit that has an end slot to receive jambs of doors or windows.
Scored Block. Block with grooves that are in a visual pattern. For example, the grooves may simulate raked joints. Usually available in 1, 3, 5, or 7 score pattern.
Shadow Block. Block with a face formed in planes to develop surface patterns.
Sill Block. A solid concrete masonry unit used for the sills of openings.
Single Corner Block. Concrete masonry unit that has one flat end. Used in the construction of an end or a corner of a wall.
Slump Block. Concrete masonry units (produced so that they "slump" or sag in irregular fashion before they harden) used in masonry wall construction.
Split Face Block. Concrete masonry unit with one or more faces having a fractured surface. Used in masonry wall construction.
Concrete Brick. A solid concrete masonry unit made from portland cement and suitable aggregates, with or without the inclusion of other materials.
Coping Block. A solid concrete masonry unit for use as the top and finished course in wall construction.
Faced Block. Concrete masonry units having a special ceramic, glazed, plastic, polished, or ground face or surface.
Filler Block. Concrete masonry unit for use in conjunction with concrete joists for concrete floor or roof construction.
Jamb Block. A block specially formed for the jamb of windows or doors, generally with a vertical slot to receive window frames.
Lintel Block (or U-Block). A masonry unit consisting of one core with one side open. (Usually placed with the open side up, like a trough, to form a continous beam.)
Offset Block. A unit that is not rectangular in shape. Usually made as a corner block to keep the construction modular.
Open End Block. A hollow unit, with one end closed and the opposite end open, forming two cells when laid in the wall.
Pilaster Block. Concrete masonry units designed for use in the construction of plain or reinforced concrete masonry pilasters and columns.
Sculptured Block. Block with specially formed surfaces, as a sculpturing block.
CONTROL JOINT. Formed, sawed, or tooled in a masonry structure to regulate the location and amount of cracking and seperation resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure, thereby avoiding the development of high stresses.
COPING. The material or masonry units forming a cap or finish on top of a wall, pier, pilaster, chimney. It protects masonry below from penetration of water from above.
COQUINA. Coarse porous limestone composed of shells and shell fragments loosely cemented by calcite.
CORBEL. A shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of the wall. (UBC)
Corbel Arch. Masonry built over a wall opening by uniformly projecting from each side until the units meet at midpoint. No arch action is effected-not a true arch.
Corbel Course. A masonry course acting as a corbel or as an ornament of similar appearance.
Corbeled Vault. A masonry roof constructed from opposite walls or from a circular base, by shifting courses slightly and regularly inward until they meet. The resulting stepped surface may be smoothed or curved, but no true arch action is involved.
CORE. A hollow space within a concrete masonry unit formed by the face shells and webs. The holes in clay units. Also called a cell.
CORNERSTONE. 1.Generally a stone that forms a corner or angle in a structure. 2. More specifically, a stone prominently situated near the base of a corner in a building carrying in formation recording the dedication dates and other pertinent information. In some buildings, these stones contain or cap a vault in which contemporary memorabilia are preserved.
CORNICE. The molding or series of moldings forming the top member of a facade, door or window frame, or interior wall. Also the top member of a classical entablature.
CORROSION RESISTANT. Metal that is treated or coated to retard harmful oxidation or other corrosive action. An example is steel galvanized.
COURSE. One of the continous horizontal layers of units, bonded with mortar in masonry.
COURSE BED. Specially placed stone, brick, or other building material upon which other material is to be laid.
COURSE VENEER. In stone masonry, the use of veneer stones having equal heights to form each continous course. Horizontal joints extend the full length of any facade, but adjacent vertical joints are not superimposed.
CRAMP. A U-shaped metal fastening to hold adjacent units of masonry together, as in a parapet or wall coping, or to secure marble slab veneers together.
CROSS-BEDDING. In sedimentary rocks, inclined layers of sedimentation resulting from the progressive deposition of granular materials over a sloping surface. The layers are within a single bed between true bedding planes. Cross-bedding lends textural and color pattern to building stone.
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF HOLLOW UNITS.
The total area including cells of a section perpendicuar to the direction of loading. Reentrant spaces are included in the gross area, unless these spaces are to be occupied in masonry by portions of adjacent units. (UBC)
Net Cross-Sectional Area of Hollow Units.
The gross cross-sectional area of a section minus the average area of ungrouted cores. (UBC).
CSI. Construction Specifications Institute.
CULLING. Sorting masonry units per size, color, and/or quality.
Culls. Masonry units which do not meet the standards or specifications and have been rejected
CURBING. Tabular bodies of stone or concrete, straight or curved, that are set on edge and form the upward vertical projection bordering streets, sidewalks, or planted areas.
CURING. The maintenance of proper conditions of moisture and temperature during initial set to develop required strength in concrete and mortar.
CURTAIN WALL. A non-loadbearing exterior wall vertically supported only at its base, or having bearing support at prescribed vertical intervals.
CUT STONE. Building stones cut to a specified size and shape.
Cutting Stock. Stone slabs of suitable size and thickness from which cut stone units are fabricated.
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