Glossary of Masonry Terminology
by Masonry Institute of Washington
 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

F

 

  
FACE. 1. The exposed surface of a wall or masonry unit. 2. The surface of a unit designed to be exposed in the finished masonry.

Face Shell. The side wall of a hollow concrete masonry unit.

Face Shell Bedding. Mortar applied to the horizontal face of the face shells of hollow masonry units.

FACE BEDDED. Stone set with the stratification vertical.

FACING. Any material, forming a part of a wall, used as a finished surface.

FALSE JOINT. A groove routed (and generally pointed) in a solid block of stone to simulate a joint.

FASCIA. A flat horizontal band that appears as a vertical face.

FAT MIX. A mortar mixture containing a high ratio of binder to aggregate.

FEATHER-EDGED COPING. Coping that slopes in only one direction (not ridged or gabled).

FIELD. The expanse of wall between openings and corners, principally composed of stretchers.

FIELDSTONE. Loose stone found on the surface or in the soil ("in the field"). Generally applied slab units, flat in the direction of the bedding or lineation of the rock and suitable for settings as dry wall masonry. Stream shingle has much the same shape and appearance, but is not found in the fields. Glacial or alluvial boulders and cobbles, which may be found in or on the soil, are not fieldstone in the strict sense.

FILLER BLOCK. Concrete masonry unit for use in conjunction with concrete joists for concrete floor construction.

FILTER BLOCK. A hollow, vitrified clay masonry unit, sometimes salt-glazed, designed for trickling filter floors in sewage disposal plants. ASTM Specification C 159.

FIREBRICK. A refractory brick which meets the requirements of Standard No. 37-1. UBC.

FIRE CLAY. A clay which is highly resistant to heat without deforming and used for making brick.

FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney. (UBC)

FIREPLACE SCREEN. Usually glass provide a barrier that will keep heated air from escaping up the chimney, but still allow smoke and fumes to get out. Masonry fireplace is a heart and chamber of solid masonry units such as bricks, stones, masonry units provided with a suitable chimney. (UBC)

FIREPROOFING. Any material or assembly protecting structural members to increase their fire resistance.

FIRE RESISTIVE MATERIALS. Such materials meeting Chapter 43 requirements. UBC.

FIRE WALL. Any wall that subdivides a building to resist the spread of fire and which extends continuously from the foundation to varying heights through and above the roof.

FLAGSTONE. A flat stone, thin in relation to its surface area, that may be used as a stepping stone, for a terrace or patio, or for floor paving. Usually either naturally thin or split from rock that cleaves readily.

Flagging. 1 Collective term for flagstones. 2. A surface paved with flagstones. 3. The process of setting flagstone.

FLAKING. See exfoliation.

FLASHING. 1. A thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and/or provide water drainage. 2. Manufacturing method to produce specific color tones.

FLINT. A dense, fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica (Si02) that fractures conchoidally. A variety of chert, the more technical term. Most flint is gray, brown, black, or otherwise dark, but nodules and other chunks tend to weather white or change to lighter shades from the surface inward.

FLOOR BRICK. Smooth, dense brick, highly resistant to abrasion, used as finished floor surfaces (ASTM C410.)

FLOW. Measure of mortar consistency, sometimes called initial flow.

FLOW AFTER SUCTION - DRY. Flow of mortar measured after subjecting it to a vacuum to simulate suction of dry masonry units.

FLOW OF MORTAR. Measured on a steel circular plate upon which mortar has been placed in to a small truncated cone, the cone removed, and the plate "dropped" 25 times in 15 seconds. The "flow" is the increase in diameter of the mortar pat over the original diameter of the base of the cone. (Laboratory work). Mortar for masonry should have a flow of between 135% and 145% at time of use.

FLOW AFTER SUCTION - WET. First the "flow" is determined, then the mortar is placed in an apparatus whereby a 2" vacuum is pulled on the mortar through a perforated dish for one minute. Then the mortar is again measured for "flow." Flow after suction is expressed as a percentage of orginal flow. (Laboratory work.) Good mortar should have not less than 85% flow after suction at time of use.

FLUE LINING OR LINER. Fire clay, terra cotta or pumice material, made to be built inside a chimney.

FLUE LINING. A smooth hollow tile unit used for the inner lining of masonry chimneys.

FLYING BUTTRESS. A type in which a detached buttress or pier at a distance from a wall is connected to the wall by an arch or portion of arch.

FOUNDATION WALL. That portion of a loadbearing wall above the level of the adjacent grade, or below the first-floor beams or joists.

FREESTONE. Stone with no tendency to split in any preferential direction, thus eminently suited for carving and elaborate milling. Restricted to stone that is fairly fine grained and works easily.

FRIEZE. 1. The middle member of a classical entablature. 2. A horizontal decorative band or border, carved or painted, encircling a room at dado level or higher, or used on exterior building faces.

FROG. A depression in the bed surface of a brick. Sometimes called a panel.

FULL MORTAR BEDDING. Where mortar is applied to the entire horizontal face of the masonry unit.

FURRING. A method of finishing the interior face of a masonry wall to provide space for insulation, prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a level surface for finishing.

FURRING UNITS. Masonry units of shallow thickness used to finish the interior surface of a wall to provide space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing.

FURROWING. The practice of striking a "V" shaped trough in a bed of mortar with the point of the trowel.

 


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